Quick Reference Research Chart
|MFL Component||Effect Size||Percentile||Other Gains or Info||Source|
|Advance Organizer||.52||20%||Illustrated advance organizer with standards walls||Marzano (2001)
Hattie & Timperley (2007)
|Immediate descriptive feedback based on formative assessment||.19-1.35||7-41%||Visual formative assessment for minute-by-minute feedback
Tiers of feedback: student, peer,
Black & William (1998)
Leahy, Lyon, Thompson, & William (2005)
Hattie & Timperley (2007)
|27%||In addition to achievement, student motivation, time on task, and cooperative behaviors increase||Marzano (2001)
Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson & Skon (1981)
Johnson & Johnson (2009)
Use of Visual Images
|1.0||34%||+34% higher than without visuals
+21% higher than writing sentences
37% higher than use of definitions
|Visual images: Marzano (2004)
|Direct instruction of vocabulary||
|33% increase in student achievement (words students will encounter)||50th percentile to 83rd percentile with vocabulary instruction
Prior knowledge & vocabulary
|Stahl & Fairbanks (1986)
Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002)
|Compare & Contrast||.88 to 1.76||31 – 46%||Classification (sort)
Compare & Contrast
Black, P., & William, D., (1998). Inside the black box: raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148.
Hattie, J. & Timberley, H., (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 77(1), pp. 81- 112.
Leahy, S., Lyon, C., Thompson, M., & William, D. (2005). Classroom assessment: minute by minute, day by day. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 19-24.
Johnson, D., Johnson, R. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38, 365-379.
Johnson, D., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., Nelson, D. (1981). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89(1), 47-62.
Marzano, R., (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J., (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano,R. (2007). Designing a comprehensive approach to classroom assessment. In D. Reeves (Ed) Ahead of the curve (pp 102-125).Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
Powell, G. (1980, December) A meta-analysis of the effects of “imposed” and “induced” imagery upon word recall. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Diego, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED199644)
Stahl, S.A., & Fairbanks, M.M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: a model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56(1), 72-110.