Where Rigor Meets Engagement


Quick Reference Research Chart


MFL Component Effect Size Percentile Other Gains or Info Source
Advance Organizer .52 20% Illustrated advance organizer with standards walls Marzano (2001)

Hattie & Timperley (2007)


Immediate descriptive feedback based on formative assessment .19-1.35 7-41% Visual formative assessment for minute-by-minute feedback

Tiers of feedback:  student, peer,
and teacher

Marzano (2007)

Black & William (1998)

Leahy, Lyon, Thompson, & William (2005)

Hattie & Timperley (2007)

Cooperative Learning .73


27% In addition to achievement, student motivation, time on task, and cooperative behaviors increase Marzano (2001)

Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson & Skon (1981)

Johnson & Johnson (2009)

Vocabulary Development

Use of Visual Images

1.0 34% +34%  higher than without visuals

+21% higher than writing sentences

37% higher than use of definitions

Visual images:  Marzano (2004)

Powell, 1980

Direct instruction of vocabulary  


33% increase in student achievement (words students will encounter) 50th percentile to 83rd percentile with vocabulary instruction

Prior knowledge & vocabulary

Stahl & Fairbanks (1986)

Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002)

Marzano (2004)

Compare & Contrast .88 to 1.76 31 – 46% Classification (sort)

Compare & Contrast

Marzano (2001)



Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life. New York: The Guilford Press.
Black, P., & William, D., (1998). Inside the black box: raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148.
Hattie, J. & Timberley, H., (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 77(1), pp. 81- 112.
Leahy, S., Lyon, C., Thompson, M., & William, D. (2005). Classroom assessment: minute by minute, day by day. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 19-24.
Johnson, D., Johnson, R. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38, 365-379.
Johnson, D., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., Nelson, D. (1981). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89(1), 47-62.
Marzano, R., (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA:  ASCD.
Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J., (2001). Classroom instruction that works.  Alexandria, VA:  ASCD.
Marzano,R. (2007). Designing a comprehensive approach to classroom assessment. In D. Reeves (Ed) Ahead of the curve (pp 102-125).Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
Powell, G. (1980, December) A meta-analysis of the effects of “imposed” and “induced” imagery upon word recall. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Diego, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED199644)
Stahl, S.A., & Fairbanks, M.M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: a model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56(1), 72-110.